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Glossary



Table of Contents

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS; Lou Gehrig's Disease)
Aphasia
Autism
Apraxia
Brain Stem Lesion
Cerebral Palsy (CP)
Down Syndrome
Dysarthria
Locked-In Syndrome
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Muscular Dystrophy (MD)
Myasthenia Gravis (MG)
Parkinson's Disease
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)


Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS; Lou Gehrig's Disease): "A progressive, degenerative neurological disease of unknown etiology that affects motor neurons or the brain and spinal cord resulting eventually in total loss of muscle function and death; often referred to as Lou Gehrig's disease." (p. 523, Lloyd, Fuller & Arvidson, 1998)

Learn more about ALS at http://www.lougehrigsdisease.net/index.html

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Aphasia

Aphasia: "Impairment in the comprehension and formulation of language symbols resulting from damage to certain areas of the brain. Aphasia is frequently caused by focal brain lesions in the cortical an subcortical areas of the left hemisphere as a result of hemorrhage or thromboembolic clots. Deficits are demonstrated in aspects of communication (e.g. comprehension, speaking/signing, reading , writing) either singly or in combination." (p. 523, Lloyd, Fuller & Arvidson, 1998)

Learn more about aphasia at http://www.aphasia.org/

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Apraxia

Apraxia: "Disorder of motor planning caused by damage to the motor control areas of the brain; inability to execute volitional movements. Limb apraxia and apraxia of speech are characterized by difficulty sequencing and coordinating movements in the absence of paralysis or weakness of muscles, usually resulting in highly inconsistent performance." (p. 523-524, Lloyd, Fuller & Arvidson, 1998)

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Autism

Autism: "Pervasive developmental disorder marked by severe interruption of social interaction. Individuals with autism are often described as being severely withdrawn, being rigidly dependent on routine, avoiding social contact, and showing repetitive, stereotypic behaviors." (p. 524-525, Lloyd, Fuller & Arvidson, 1998)

Learn more at http://www.autism.clarityconnect.com/kellysm/

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Brain Stem Lesion

Brain Stem Lesion: loss of function in the brain stem related to stroke or injury. Damage to areas that control speech may cause Locked-In Syndrome.

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Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral Palsy (CP): "A central nervous system disorder affecting motor control occurring at or about the time of birth, prior to the achievement of muscular coordination." (p. 526, Lloyd, Fuller & Arvidson, 1998)

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Learn more at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/health_and_medical/disorders/cerebral_palsy.htm


Down Syndrome

Down Syndrome: "A congenital condition (Trisomy 21) that typically results in cognitive impairment." (p. 528, Lloyd, Fuller & Arvidson, 1998)

Learn more at http://www.downsyndrome.com/

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Dysarthria

Dysarthria: "Motor impairment in the production of speech due to damage to the central and/or peripheral nervous systems, causing a disturbance in any or all of the processes of speech (articulation, phonation, prosody, resonance, respiration). Paralysis, weakness, and lack of coordination of muscles involved in speech production are characteristic of dysarthria." (p. 529, Lloyd, Fuller & Arvidson, 1998)

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Locked-In Syndrome

Locked-In Syndrome: "This syndrome is due to stroke, tumor or trama to the ventral part of the rostral pons. Lesions there render the individual quadriplegic, unable to speak and incapable of facial movement. One would think these individuals were in a coma except that they are able to move their eyes and if given an eye communicating device they can communicate."

Learn more at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/health_and_medical/disorders/lockedinsyndrome_doc.htm

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Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis (MS): "Disease of the central and/or peripheral nervouse system characterized by loss of the fatty sheaths (i.e., myelin) that surround the nerve fibers resulting in a variety of symptoms such as double vision, loss or reduction of sensation, tingling in the extremities, dizziness, and dysarthria. MS is common in young adults and is characterized by remissions and relapses." (p. 535, Lloyd, Fuller & Arvidson, 1998)

Learn more at http://www.nmss.org/

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Muscular Dystrophy

Muscular Dystrophy (MD): "refers to a group of genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal or voluntary muscles which control movement. The muscles of the heart and some other involuntary muscles are also affected in some forms of MD, and a few forms involve other organs as well. The major forms of MD include myotonic, Duchenne, Becker, limb-girdle, facioscapulohumeral, congenital, oculopharyngeal, distal and Emery-Dreifuss. Duchenne is the most common form of MD affecting children, and myotonic MD is the most common form affecting adults. MD can affect people of all ages. Although some forms first become apparent in infancy or childhood, others may not appear until middle age or later."

Learn more at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/health_and_medical/disorders/md.htm

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Myasthenia Gravis

Myasthenia Gravis (MG): " is a chronic neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of weakness of the skeletal or voluntary muscles of the body. The muscle weakness increases during periods of activity and improves after periods of rest. MG most commonly occurs in young adult women and older men, but it can occur at any age. Although MG may affect any voluntary muscle, certain muscles including those that control eye movements, eye lids, chewing, swallowing, coughing, and facial expressions are more often affected. Weakness may also occur in the muscles that control breathing and arm and leg movements. The muscles involved in MG vary from one individual to the next."

Learn more at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/health_and_medical/disorders/myasthenia_gravis.htm

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Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's Disease: "Parkinson's disease belongs to a group of conditions called motor system disorders. The four primary symptoms are:

  • "Tremor" or trembling in hands, arms, legs, jaw, and face.
  • "Rigidity" or stiffness of the limbs and trunk.
  • "Bradykinesia" or slowness of movement.
  • "Postural instability" or impaired balance and coordination.

As these symptoms become more pronounced, patients may have difficulty walking, talking, or completing other simple tasks. The disease is both chronic, meaning it persists over a long period of time, and progressive, meaning its symptoms grow worse over time. It is not contagious nor is it usually inherited--that is, it does not pass directly from one family member or generation to the next."

Learn more at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/health_and_medical/disorders/parkinsons_disease.htm

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Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): a sudden trauma causing brain damage. Loss of function depends on the area of the brain, and the amount of damage.

Learn more at http://www.tbi.org/

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